Why Purple Corn?

Lately, we’ve been rediscovering the roots of our food.

Long before we had bred our grains and fruits to be big, quick-to-grow, easy-to-harvest and easy-to-store, we had foods that were much denser in both nutrition and flavor.

Take corn. We now know that one of the most ancient forms is Kculli,  a beautiful purple variety that was once a staple in the Incan empire, and almost became one of the “lost crops of the Incas”.

Luckily, Purple Corn is still grown in Peru.  It and other, later-developed strains of  purple corns are staples in South America, but this incredible food is only just now reaching the US.

For thousands of years, the people of the Andes have soaked Purple Corn to make a refreshing drink called chicha, which is now recognized as a nutritive powerhouse due to its extremely high anthocyaninin content.

Anthocyaninins are miracle molecules found in darkly colored fruits and vegetables.  They’re being studied for their ability to improve everything from cardiovascular health to collagen regeneration.  There’s also been some very promising studies on their effects on cancer cells.

•    Higher antioxidant capacity and free radical fighting ability than any other grain or fruit
•    Substantial amounts of phenolics and anthocyanins, among other beneficial phytochemicals.
•    CG3, the anthocyanin found in Purple Corn, is among the most potent antioxidants in existence.

Of course, Purple Corn is more than a healthy source of nutrients…it’s also a fun way to make tortillas, soups, and (purple) cornbread recipes!

Purple Veggie Medicine

purple cornA new study by scientists in the U.S. has found that red and blue foods are the best when it comes to fighting cancer.

They say the natural pigments which give some fruit and vegetables a rich red, purple or blue color act as powerful anti-cancer agents.

The researchers say compounds, found in foods such as Purple Corn, aubergines, red cabbage, elderberries and bilberries, restricted the growth of cancer cells and in some cases killed them off entirely, leaving healthy cells unharmed.

The researchers from Ohio State University conducted a study which combined laboratory tests on human cancer cells with experiments on animals.

The study was designed to examine whether a diet rich in the foods made a difference to the risk of developing cancer.

The researchers led by Dr. Monica Giusti, an expert in plant nutrients, extracted anthocyanins from a variety of exotic and more common fruits and vegetables which all had a deep red, blue or purple colour and added them to flasks containing a suspension of human colon cancer cells.

They found that foods with the highest levels of the compounds were most effective at slowing cancer growth; in particular the exotic Purple Corn and chokeberries stopped the growth of colon cancer cells and also killed 20% in lab tests.

Foods with less of the pigments, such as radishes and black carrots, slowed the growth of colon cancer cells by 50% to 80%.

The pigments belong to a class of antioxidant compounds known as anthocyanins which are not easily absorbed by the bloodstream.

In their passage through the stomach to the gastrointestinal tract, they are taken up by surrounding tissues.

The scientists believe it is their survival through to the lower part of the intestine which may be the key to their role in preventing cancers.

While the team calculated Purple Corn to be the most potent, chokeberries and bilberries were almost as effective, and radish anthocyanin required nine times as much to cut cancer cell growth by half.

For the second study, the researchers fed rats with colon cancer a diet of anthocyanin extracts from bilberries and chokeberries, which are most often used as flavourings in jams and fruit drinks.

They found the colon tumours in the rats fell by 60% to 70% compared with a control group that were not given anthocyanin.

Dr. Giusti says all fruits and vegetables that are rich in anthocyanins have compounds that can slow down the growth of colon cancer cells, whether in experiments in laboratory dishes or inside the body.

The research was presented at the annual meeting of the American Chemical Society in Boston and is part of a long-term investigation aimed at a greater understanding of the 600 anthocyanins found in nature.

Dr. Giusti says scientists have just begun to scratch the surface of understanding how the body absorbs and uses different structures.

for more information, check out the studies:

Anthocyanin-rich extracts inhibit multiple biomarkers of colon cancer in rats.
Nutr Cancer. 2006;54(1):84-93.

Effects of commercial anthocyanin-rich extracts on colonic cancer and nontumorigenic colonic cell growth.
J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Oct 6;52(20):6122-8.

Chicha Morada Magic

For Weight Loss and Detox Chicha morada is a summer drink made from purple corn or maiz morado. Its origins date back to the Incan Empire and it’s still a popular drink among modern Peruvians.

Not only is it refreshing, it also curbs your appetite and has incredible antioxidant levels – even higher than blueberries!

In addition, Chica Morada may also have anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties, promote blood flow, reduce cholesterol and play a beneficial role in supporting healthy blood sugar levels. Not bad for a simple little vegetable drink!

Ingredients:

1 lb of purple corn cobs or ¼ lb of purple corn kernels
4 quarts of water
2 cinnamon sticks
2 cloves
Sweetener (True Blue Agave, Yacon Syrup, or several handfuls of pineapple chunks)
½ cup fresh lime juice
1 cup of fresh fruit

To get your own fix, fill a pot with the cobs or kernels and add about 4 quarts of water. Add cloves and cinnamon sticks. Either soak overnight (for a raw recipe) or bring the water to boil over high heat (for a faster recipe).

Cover the pot and let it simmer for about one hour. It will turn a very cool eggplant purple color.

Pour the liquid into a glass container if you don’t have the traditional urpu jar. Fill the pot up with water again, and cook over low heat. After about 1 hour, pour the liquid into the same glass container. Squeeze a ½ cup of fresh limes into the mixture. Let it cool down and then put it in the refrigerator. You will be set for the whole week!

Chicha morada makes a unique punch to serve at a summer barbecue! Garnish with fruit when ready to serve. For a festive party, add a couple of shots of Pisco to give your brew a little zing. Some Peruvians add Aji peppers for a kicked-up version called chicha picante.

For a simpler process, try adding purple corn extract to your smoothies, juices, desserts or sauces, either as a nutrient-boost or as a natural food-coloring: your kids will get a kick out of eating purple cake!

Have a nutritious purple-powered day!

Purple Powerhouse

Chicha Morada

Haven’t heard about Purple Corn yet? It’s not just for corn chips.

Science has rediscovered this ancient Andean superfood and revealed its amazing healing properties.

It all starts with the source of the Purple in the Corn: an antioxidant flavonoid called C3G, proven to be among the most potent antioxidants in existence.

We hear a lot about how antioxidants protect against wear-and-tear and possibly even cancer, and C3G is no exception: laboratory studies have proven it highly effective in protecting animals against tumors and all sorts of liver-killing chemicals.

But C3G is nearly miraculous for its ability to support health in several other ways: it has shown anti-inflammatory and cholesterol-lowering effects, and it may have the potential to fight obesity and diabetes.

In animal studies, high-fat diets always create chubby critters, but when this fatty diet is supplemented with C3G, the animals don’t gain weight. While a high-fat diet normally elevates blood-sugar and insulin levels (the first steps on the road to diabetes), C3G kept the test-subjects in balance.

Not only that, C3G may protect against inflammation. In animals studies, it definitely works to protect against toxin-related swelling of the liver.

To top it all off, the class of chemicals C3G belongs to (anthocyaninins) seem to stabilize and protect capillaries from oxidative damage and have been shown to stabilize connective tissue, promote collagen formation, improve microcirculation and help protect blood vessels from oxidative damage!

So if you’re already supplementing your diet with plenty of whole foods in order to get flavonoids and antioxidants that you can’t find in any lab-formulated pills and powders, then you definitely need to add Purple Corn Extract to your daily regimen.

But make sure you’re getting it from reputable sources – just because it says “Organic” doesn’t mean it’s a pure, live food! Can your supplier trace their product directly to its source? Was it exposed to high temperatures during processing, or was it juiced and slowly evaporated to preserve delicate nutrients in their original functional form?

Get informed and power up with purple!

Purple Corn Science

Powerful, Natural Health Nuggets

by Kenneth Jones

Reprinted from HerbalGram

Purple Corn is fast approaching classification as a functional food—an integral component of the diet that provides energy and essential nutrients. Researchers in the fields of food and nutrition are intensely searching for functional foods in almost every corner of the world and from a diversity of plants. Examples include Purple Corn, green tea, soy isoflavones, various nuts, plus various other natural substances in the human diet containing antioxidant and other substances with alleged or proven potential disease-preventive properties.

Purple Corn (frequently referred to as blue corn) is botanically the same species as regular table corn. Yet by a twist of nature, this corn produces kernels with one of the deepest shades of purple found anywhere in the plant “kingdom.” Research has shown that Purple Corncontains cell-protecting antioxidants with the ability to inhibit carcinogen-induced tumors in rats. Many plant-derived substances are believed to show these properties, but few have also demonstrated anti-inflammatory capabilities and the potential to help prevent obesity.

The kernels of Purple Corn (maiz morado in Spanish) have long been used by the people of the Peruvian Andes to color foods and beverages, a practice just beginning to become popularized in the industrialized world. They also make a fermented/alcoholic drink from the kernels which they call chicha morada.1

RICH IN ANTHOCYANINS
The source of this natural alternative to synthetic food dyes is the largest group of natural, water-soluble pigments in the plant world, known as “anthocyanins.”2 (The word anthocyanin is derived from the Greek terms, anthos, meaning flower, and kyanos, meaning blue.3) Anthocyanins are responsible for the purple, violet, and red colors attending many plants. Anthocyanins belong to an even larger class of plant chemicals known as flavonoids and are found in diverse plants, including many food plants.4
Researchers at the Horticultural Sciences Department of Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas, recently determined that the mean anthocyanin content of whole, fresh purple corn from Peru was 16.4 mg/g, which was much higher than fresh blueberries (1.3-3.8 mg/g). On a dry weight basis, the mean content of Purple Corn was comparable to blueberries (17.7 and 9.2-24.0 mg/g, respectively). The kernel pericarp held by far the greatest concentration of anthocyanins, contributing 45% of the total content. More intriguing, the in vitro antiradical capacity of Purple Corn Extract against the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical was greater than that of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L., Ericaceae), which have shown higher antioxidant values than many other commercial food plants.5

POWERFUL ANTIOXIDANT
Digging deeper, the most abundant anthocyanin found in Purple Corn, called “C3G” (3-O-β-D-glucoside6,7), also known as cyanidin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside,8 has been keeping researchers very busy lately. In a number of tests designed to assess the potential health benefits of this anthocyanin, one study after another has proven its antioxidant strength. Like other anthocyanins, C3G is found in a wide variety of food plants and is actually the most common anthocyanin found in nature. C3G is the most abundant anthocyanin in some foods, such as the juice of ruby oranges (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck “Blood orange,” Rutaceae)8 and blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis [L.] Bailey, Rosaceae) extract.9 Red wine also contains appreciable amounts,10,11 but other anthocyanins predominate.12 C3G displays significant in vitro antioxidant activity. In one study C3G came out on top when compared to 13 other anthocyanins in the ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay, which tests for antioxidant activity. The strength of C3G was 3.5 times that of Trolox®(a synthetic and potent antioxidant analogue of vitamin E).13 To date, the radical scavenging/antioxidant capacity of C3G has been demonstrated in at least a dozen different assays.8,14-20 In one in vitro study, C3G was tested for the potential to prevent damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) light. Its ability to inhibit the oxidation of fat cells induced by UVB (280-315 nm) light was at least 40 times that of vitamin E; however, vitamin E is a weak inhibitor of UVB-induced lipid oxidation because it rapidly breaks down under UV light.19 Oxidative stress and immune suppression caused by UV light are well-known for their role in the induction of skin cancers.20

Oxidative stress is described as a state in which there is an excess of oxygen-based free radicals. To avoid the damage they can cause to cells, the body produces antioxidants to inactivate these free radicals. If they prove insufficient, however, the body suffers from oxidation of lipids, proteins, and nucleotide bases. In models of oxidative stress using oxidative injury to the liver, male rats fed a diet containing 0.2% C3G (2 g/kg of feed) for 2 weeks beforehand showed significantly less liver injury compared to the control group.21 A similar study in rats fed C3G in liquid form (0.9 mmol/kg) also found significant hepatoprotective effects.22

ANTI-INFLAMMATORYCAPABILITIES
In a study on the anti-inflammatory potential of C3G, male rats administered the anthocyanin orally in liquid form (0.9 mmol/kg) prior to chemically-induced acute inflammation showed significantly less inflammation and significantly attenuated levels of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, interleukin-β, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and inducible nitric oxide [iNOS] expression) and nitric oxide (a free radical).23 Based on these results, it is possible that this plant pigment may also suppress the inflammatory response in diseases marked with inflammation.

PREVENTING CANCER
Could the anthocyanin pigment also help prevent some types of cancer? That question was put to the test in rats first treated with a carcinogen (1,2-dimethylhydrazine) and then fed a diet containing a known environmental carcinogen (PhIP or 2-amino-1-methyl-6- phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) that also targets the mammary gland, prostate, and large intestine in rats and causes colorectal cancer. Incidentally, the carcinogen used in the study, known as a heterocyclic amine, is the most abundant of around 20 other types found in cooked meats and fish. Both the early signs of colorectal cancers and the
numbers of malignant and benign tumors that formed in the colons of rats that had the purple pigment in their diet (5% of feed for 32 weeks; a nontoxic dose based on previous carcinogenicity studies of PCC) were significantly reduced, and there were no adverse effects. The authors of the study note that extract or juices of plants that contain high amounts of anthocyanins have previously been reported to inhibit mutagenesis induced by heterocyclic amines.24 The oxidation of fats or lipids in blood serum contributes to the condition known as atherosclerosis. When male rats were fed a diet containing a high amount of C3G (0.2% of feed for 2 weeks) in place of sucrose content in the control diet, their blood serum showed a significantly lower level of oxidation along with a significant decrease in the susceptibility of their serum lipids to undergo oxidation, yet their body’s natural antioxidants (serum levels of vitamins C and E, glutathione, and uric acid) remained unaffected. Another intriguing discovery in this study was that the rats with C3G in their feed also showed significant decreases in levels of total cholesterol—about 16% less.25

ANTI-OBESITY POTENTIAL
What would happen if rats were fed C3G as part of a high-fat diet? To find out, researchers in Japan compared the body weights of male mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet with another group fed the same HF diet but with the addition of purple corn color (PCC) which provided C3G (0.2% or 2 g/kg of feed). Results were also compared to 2 control groups: one fed a normal diet and one fed a normal diet with C3G.

After 12 weeks, the results were obvious: mice in the PCC-HF group showed significantly less signs of developing obesity, yet exhibited no significant difference in food consumption compared to the control groups with or without the PCC in their feed. When related to the primary control group (no HF diet or PCC), the adipose tissue weights of the PCC-HF group were not significantly different. In addition, fatty tissue in HF-diet group was found to be growing in size but showed no increase in the PCC-HF group. The HF-diet group also developed a state of hyper-glycemia along with an over-production of insulin. Interestingly, this was not observed in the PCC-HF group in which both pathologies were completely normalized. In conclusion, the researchers stated that their tests of PCC provide a nutritional and biochemical basis for the use of the pigment or anthocyanins as a “functional food factor”—one that may be beneficial for helping to prevent diabetes and obesity.26It now remains for future studies to determine the possible contributing effects of other substances from purple corn which are extracted along with PCC.

More recent efforts to determine the potential anti-obesity mechanisms of Purple Corn pigment have focused on the effect of C3G on fat cell dysfunction, fat cell-specific gene expression, and the regulation of chemical messengers (adipocytokines) secreted by fat cells, such as the fat-derived hormone adiponectin. After feeding male mice a diet containing PCC to provide C3G (2 g/kg of feed for 12 weeks), gene expression levels of adiponectin in white fatty tissue was upregulated 1.7-fold compared to the control group not fed the food colorant.27 Plasma and gene expression levels of adiponectin are decreased in obese humans and mice and in insulin resistant states.27,28

When adiponectin was administered intravenously to mice fed high-fat/sucrose diets, weight gain was significantly inhibited. Adiponectin (i.v.) also lowered plasma glucose levels in lean mice fed a high-fat meal.28

Rich in C3G (approximately 70 mg/g), about 50,000 kg of PCC is used in Japan as a food color for confections and soft drinks annually.26 So far, PCC remains to be officially approved for use as a food colorant by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. However, approval seems likely because “grape skin color” and “grape skin extract” (“enocianini” or “enocyanin”)2 made from Concord grapes29(Vitis vinifera L., Vitaceae) are also rich in anthocyanins2 and both are FDA-approved for use in beverages and non-beverage foods.29

Kenneth Jones is a medical writer specializing in the field of medicinal plants. He is the co-author of Botanical Medicines: The Desk References for Major Herbal Supplements by McKenna, Jones, and Hughes (Haworth Herbal Press, 2002). He has no affiliation with any commercial producers of purple corn or any of the other products mentioned in this article.

REFERENCES:
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